What has NASA’s Juno discovered around Jupiter so far? (3 year update)

What has NASA’s Juno discovered around Jupiter so far? (3 year update)

I don’t know where the time has gone, but
it’s now been 3 years since Juno arrived at Jupiter. During this time, it has been collecting valuable
and insightful data about the largest of our neighbour planets. It has recently completed Perijove 21, or
its 21st polar orbit, out of a total of 35 planned orbits, which means we are now well
past the halfway point of this mission. Some of you veterans to this channel will
remember the video I made about Juno at its one year mark, but what has it discovered
since then, and has it disproved some of the assumptions we had about Jupiter from before
it arrived? I’m Alex McColgan, and you’re watching
Astrum, and together we will go through everything Juno has discovered and seen around Jupiter
so far. There was some scepticism about whether Juno
would last this long, due to the intense radiation around the planet, but Juno is currently in
good health. Its polar orbit takes it very close to the
planet, only 4000km above its atmosphere, meaning it avoids most – but not all – of
Jupiter’s plasma torus, or this region of extremely energised particles, particles which
have been trapped in place by Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field. But thankfully, Juno quickly discovered that
the radiation where it orbits was a lot weaker than initially expected. This means that even the camera is still operational,
which was one of the first instruments expected to go. Juno completely surprised scientists though
by also discovering another, small and less powerful radiation belt right above the equator,
which hugs the planet tightly. So far, the mechanisms behind this radiation
belt are unknown. However, although the radiation exposure hasn’t
been as bad as scientists expected, due to the nature of Juno’s orbit, every passing
Perijove takes it more and more into the main radiation belt, meaning Juno certainly can’t
last forever, and Perijove 35 is currently when mission controllers believe the mission
will be forced to end, whereupon they will crash Juno into Jupiter to avoid any future
collisions with Europa. The charged particles in the plasma torus
come particularly from the volcanic activity of Jupiter’s closest large moon, Io, which
blasts particles into orbit around Jupiter. Just to give you an idea of how volcanically
active Io is, this was New Horizon’s view of Io as it passed by Jupiter on its way to
Pluto, with the Tvashtar volcano in a full eruption. Juno has also had a look at Io in the infrared,
the hot spots indicating where volcanic activity is occurring. Io ejects one ton of particles into orbit
around Jupiter per second. As Io travels through the plasma torus and
interacts with Jupiter’s magnetosphere, this causes a flux tube to exist between the
planet and the moon, a flux tube being an electric current that travels along a cylindrical
tube of magnetic field lines. It is very powerful; it can develop up to
400,000 volts and one million to five million amps of current. Juno was able to get very accurate readings
of the flux tube during its 12th orbit, as it passed directly through it. No, this didn’t fry the spacecraft, as the
flux tube has a large diameter and so it isn’t concentrated enough to do damage to the craft. Also, Juno was in and out of it in a matter
of seconds. Juno is a massive spacecraft, 20m in diameter. And it really has to be, as it is a solar
powered spacecraft, and it only gets 4% of the Sun it would do around Earth. This means even though these panels are huge,
it can only generate just above 400 watts. But you’ll also notice that this design
paired with the fact that Juno rotates makes it look a bit like a fidget spinner. This isn’t just to make a pretty spinning
spacecraft. Juno was specifically designed to detect various
fields and particles around Jupiter, and having a spacecraft with a large, spinning radius
helps with that. This is particularly evident with this instrument
here, the magnetometer found at the end of one of the solar panels, tasked with mapping
out Jupiter’s magnetic field. Through Juno’s data, we now have a highly
detailed map of Jupiter’s magnetic field which is only getting more accurate with every
passing orbit. As expected, Juno confirmed that Jupiter has
a dipole like magnetic field, although it is not very aligned which the rotational axis. What was very interesting though is that scientists
discovered something called the Great Blue Spot, a region on Jupiter where the magnetic
field is very concentrated. Comparing Juno’s magnetic field data with
previous Jupiter missions, like Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo has also revealed a first for
the solar system. Jupiter’s magnetic field structure has been
found to change very gradually over time, which is called secular variation. Interestingly, this was most apparent around
Jupiter’s Great Blue Spot. This variation is thought to be driven by
a region right at the base of Jupiter’s atmosphere, which we’ll get to in a bit. A combination of the powerful magnetic field
and the charged particles in the plasma torus means that Jupiter has the brightest aurora
in the solar system, with a radiant power of 100 terawatts. Like Earth, aurora appear as bands around
the north and south poles, but unlike Earth, these aurorae are mainly visible in the ultraviolet,
and are mainly produced from alternating currents, not direct currents. When Juno measured the power generated from
the direct currents in Jupiter’s magnetosphere, it was nowhere near enough to account for
the brightness of the aurora, leading scientists to speculate that the remainder of the power
is coming from alternating currents. At this time, it is believed that these alternating
currents are produced because of the turbulence in the magnetic field. Especially at the north pole, the magnetic
field lines are much more complex, which interferes with a direct flow of currents. This is evident when comparing the North and
South Pole aurorae, at the North the aurora is much more dispersed, looking more like
filaments and flares, whereas at the South Pole where the magnetic field lines are smoother,
the aurora seems to be more structured and round. What you will also notice is this bright spot
and tail in the aurora. This is visibly where the Io flux tube meets
the planet. What is slightly less apparent though are
these other spots. These are from the other large moons in the
Jovian system, Europa and Ganymede. So, while not as powerful as Io’s flux tube,
these other moons also have their own flux tubes connecting them to the planet. The magnetic field of Jupiter brings us nicely
to one of the main science goals of Juno, to figure out the interior of Jupiter. Since Juno arrived, previous theories have
had to be completely thrown out the window by the data it has collected. Previously, it was thought that there was
a solid core, then a sharp cut-off line between the core and the next layer, the metallic
hydrogen layer. The cloud layer was then only thought to be
a few hundred kilometres deep at most. But based on the Juno data, the atmosphere
of Jupiter extends to 3000km down, and beneath this is an ocean of metallic hydrogen going
all the way down to the centre, and even if there is a core, it is very fuzzy, potentially
mixing up with the metallic hydrogen layer. So actually, to call Jupiter a gas giant is
a bit disingenuous, as 80-90% of its radius is believed to be a liquid now, or technically
an electrically conducting plasma, perhaps similar in appearance to liquid mercury. Here, the pressure is so great that the hydrogen
doesn’t retain its molecular structure with 2 combined protons and electrons, and instead
they separate meaning positive and negative charges can move about, becoming an electrically
conducting substance. We say believe, as we haven’t been able
to recreate metallic hydrogen in lab conditions yet, the pressure needed is millions of times
greater than the atmospheric pressure of Earth. Although we assume this must be the case,
due to Jupiter’s powerful magnetic field. To create a magnetic field of this strength,
the dynamo must originate in an electrically conducting substance. It can’t be a denser metal like iron in
Earth’s core, because Jupiter doesn’t have the density for that. In fact, based on its density, we know it
must be made primarily of hydrogen and smaller amounts of helium, very similar in composition
to the Sun. Another factor for the strength of the magnetic
field is due to the rapid rotation of Jupiter. One day on Jupiter only lasts about 10 hours. Various forces from this stir the liquid up,
which generates the dynamo. It is the rotation of the magnetic field from
which we can measure a day on Jupiter, as simply viewing Jupiter’s visible bands couldn’t
give you a definitive result, and this is why. You’ll notice that these bands look very
peculiar, moving in opposite directions from each other and at different speeds. But this isn’t so unusual if you also consider
the invisible jet streams on Earth. What is striking though is the colours and
turbulence found in these bands, so let’s try and understand what’s going on from
examining these Juno images. The cloud layer you are seeing here
is the ammonia cloud layer. Some are white, these represent fresh clouds
likely only recently pulled up from the deeper parts of the atmosphere. On the other hand, while the red colours you
see are also ammonia clouds, these clouds have interacted with UV light from the Sun. Think of it like a photochemical smog, the
reddish smog you see in summer over large cities. The colouring substance isn’t exactly known,
but simply put, the longer it is exposed to the Sun, the redder it gets. Interestingly though, comparing these bands
to what you see at the poles, you’ll notice it is a lot bluer here. This could be because UV light doesn’t reach
here as easily compared to the equator. Looking closely, you’ll also notice what
is known as pop-up clouds. Initially, these were thought to maybe be
water ice clouds, but they could be ammonia clouds too. They are potentially the precursors for thunderstorms
on Jupiter. The radio wave instrument onboard Juno does
detect lightning on Jupiter; however, these storms are interestingly more localised towards
the poles than at the equator, and more towards the North Pole than the South Pole. The cause for this is also unknown. Closely looking at Jupiter, you’d be hard
pressed not to notice the stunning vortexes and storms across the planet. Juno has had the opportunity to orbit directly
over the Great Red Spot, where it discovered something very interesting. It was known that the Great Red Spot rises
high above the cloud deck, but what scientists didn’t expect is how deeply it penetrates
Jupiter’s atmosphere. The instrument on onboard Juno designed to
peer into the atmosphere has a range of 350km, and it seems the Great Red Spot extends down
even further than that. Also interesting is that the Spot is cooler
than the surrounding area up until a depth of 80km, and beyond that it actually gets
warmer than the surrounding area, this heat perhaps driving the storm. It has been theorised that the Great Red Spot
is a permanent feature on Jupiter, but we’ve only had about 400 years to observe it so
far, a mere blink in astronomical timescales. Looking over the poles, other possibly permanent
features have been observed. In contrast to Saturn, which has a hexagon
on one pole and a single vortex on the other, Jupiter has five vortexes around the South
Pole and 8 around the north. It’s hard to say exactly how permanent these
storms are as Juno has only been there for three years, Juno was the first time we have
really been able to have a good look at Jupiter’s poles, but they have been reasonably constant
throughout that time. Under the ammonia cloud layer is thought to
be a water ice cloud layer, although this has not yet been confirmed as this layer hasn’t
actually been seen yet. This is one of the science goals of Juno though,
and it has several microwave detectors to try and find this elusive substance. Jupiter generates heat from within, which
can be seen through an infrared camera, the densest parts of the cloud layer blocking
some of this heat from being visible. Similarly, Jupiter also emits microwaves,
which hypothesised water clouds would absorb. So, in theory, Juno should be able to detect
where the water is present in Jupiter’s atmosphere by searching for where Jupiter’s
microwaves aren’t visible, although this data has either not been released or nothing
has been found yet. All that being said, Juno still has a while
to go with this mission, and no doubt the data it collects will be examined for years
to come. Our understanding of Jupiter is gradually
increasing, and with this knowledge comes better understanding of how our solar system
formed, and also that of other solar system’s with Jupiter sized worlds. And who knows, maybe Juno will surprise us
a few more times yet! Want to know more about the mechanics behind
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100 thoughts on “What has NASA’s Juno discovered around Jupiter so far? (3 year update)

  1. Great video, but sadly what we know about jupiter is mostly false signals. This planet is not what we think it is. Imagine a planet slightly bigger then earth, with aliens on it so advanced that they terraform the rocky planet into jupiter, meanwhile the planet is underneath the clouds, hosting the most advance civilization in our system, the reason for the coulds is actually to power the planet, the entire surface is a advanced city. The great red spot is the entrance to the planet, and its how they exit too. All the aliens that have ever come to earth are from jupiter, and the clouds on jupiter are there to shield the city from astroids and attacks from other civilizations like ours. Now you know.

  2. 😎…you aughta b Shame of uself w the uk official voice showing people a dirty Baseball tryin to pass off as jupiter…u f o s..dude..lol..😂😂😂…(😎…seriously tho…how much they pay u? inquiring minds wanna No!💥💥💯…(bitter truth Bam)..😊

  3. And people think life on Earth, renewing itself year after year with new life came about by random happenstance…

    I'd be curious to know how many asteroids and comets Jupiter has gobbled up… I've heard it described as or solar systems vacuum cleaner.

  4. did anyone else get the heebie jeebies with the graphic of the magnetic fields of jupiter? Looks like a bunch of worms coming out of a rotten apple

  5. Something I read once which blew my mind, was that if we could see Jupiter's magnetic field with the naked eye, seen from Earth it would be as big as the full moon. Meanwhile Jupiter itself, as huge as it is, is just a little dot.

  6. Amazing. Perhaps one day we'll have Jupiter's weather forecast. Not sure what the use case would be, but I just like the idea.

  7. 7:30 was the best statement in this video. Ego scientist will hold to their wildest theories till the last. I bet they could kill if you argue with them. It applies to all current theories too. Even after this mission they have more questions than answers.

  8. The Sun was chosen for the center planet over Jupiter because it was slightly larger. The asteroid belt made of pieces of broken hollow planets during a few random collisions after the big bang was artificially added to separate the two and prevent them from orbiting each other as all the planets orbited them. Because of the asteroid belt we have a star in place of two brown dwarfs Jupiter and the Sun. Jupiter is a hollow planet like all others and the Sun is a hollow gas ball somewhere between the third and fourth state of matter. Its what Jupiter would look like if all the planets were tugging in it. Its why you know that every star in the sky has planets because the planets tugging on it are what makes it hot in the first place . It works much like hysteresis in electric motors. Just a little knowledge of Jesus that science has yet to find out.

  9. jupiter is a good example of Gods power and wisdom and scientists pride and arrogance, theve been proved wrong over and over again and yet they never admit their false claims.

  10. So if shoemaker was going abit slower when it slammed into Jupiter it could of caused a tsunami ? Lol (not to be taken serious)

  11. Question why would they care where it crashes? Question could we use all that energy to power space ships that the planet puts out or collect that energy for other things?

  12. I would like to hear about what you think about the controversial book that was heavy censored by the CIA before it was rereleased. Thankfully some people have the original copies. It is called The Adam & Eve Story. There are some good videos on the subject, on YT.

  13. Since Jupiter has so much Hydrogen and possibly Helium, if triggered with enough energy, could Jupiter become a sun ☀️? Wow scary, and a little mind blowing.

  14. To avoid collision with Europa? Who care if it hits Europa? Crash it into Jupiter so to avoid collision with Europa… Why is there 6 humans on it building a temporary colony with lost money? Can't risk hitting that.. interesting

  15. The overall quality and "convincingness" of a hard-science video can be judged by its like to dislike ratio. There will ALWAYS be some folks who will press the thumbs down button just for fun, or because they feel grumpy.. this is a fact of the internet. This video's up/down ratio is 38 to 1 – not too shabby!!

  16. Q1: Since Io spitting out one ton of material per second, how old is Io, and/or how long has this been going on? How long will it last?

    Q2: What happens to asteroids and meteors that enter Jupiter?

    Thank you!

  17. Fascinating update – New data so compatable with the notion that Jupiter has a low density or hollow interior as may be common – Also the massive magnetic field creates electric current or it may turn out to be the other way around?

  18. I would say "possibly" since it's still theory and speculation based on the data collected. Based on flawed human technologies and theories. I am surprised that thing didn't get sucked in. I mean there were faster things like comets that got sucked in.

  19. It's too bad the radiation levels are so high. Ever since I read Farmer in the Sky, I've imagined how amazing it would to see Jupiter looming large in the sky as seen from one of Jupiter's moons.

  20. More evidence of the electric universe but standard model beliefs will have researchers doing mental gymnastics to keep it ruling. We will never understand the universe as long as we keep paper and gluing the current paradigm. It’s a shame.

  21. So jupiter is a giant AC current generator??? I'm convinced people that were on mars an tried to turn Jupiter into a second sun…idk y but that's the theory. Kinda fits with this data

  22. Space is endlessly fascinating. Images from Juno actually brought tears to my eyes. To be able to see such detail from Jupiter is nothing short of an amazing experience.

  23. Hey i personally think magnetars are just about the most interesting object in space and hoping that maybe one day you put something together about magnetars.
    I like magnetic fields and they have the most destructive magnetic field found in the universe.
    12mi diameter objects with a mass 2 to 3 times that of the sun. 1tbs would weigh 100 million tons and makes a full rotation in less then a second…..
    Then you have star quakes that cause massive gamma radiation burst 100 times stronger then any other recorded gamma ray burst.
    I believe they are also the most destructive object other than a blackhole…

    I've watched a lot of your videos and wanted to also say keep up the good work. Very well done.

  24. we are made of atoms that are made of emptiness by 99.999% and no one know what that ¨emptiness¨ is. How can u make a portrait of me. Inspired of Sadguru.

  25. It is interesting to watch how much mainstream cosmology. Start to sound more and more like the electric universe model. Although the assumptions about the cause of this electricity. Is as unlikely as the model always has been. Thank you for a great video. Great delivery.

  26. Amazed the moon could be so hot being it is so far from any true heat source. I thought it might have some hot spots but the whole moon was lit up simply amazing

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