Mars Mission Update: October 2019

Mars Mission Update: October 2019

We’ve always dreamed of visiting other worlds.
At the dawn of the space age, science fiction imagined fleets of giant rockets would
propel us into a future where the Universe would open to human exploration. With rotating
space stations, food grown in orbit, and frequent expeditions to planets and moons beyond Earth,
the future was bright and exciting. Reality, however, took a different path. The steel giants imagined by science fiction were replaced by rockets composed of aluminium alloys. And despite the success of the Apollo Moon missions, it has been 47 years since a person last left
low-Earth orbit. But now, something is changing. In the south of Texas, a lone steel giant,
a Starship, stands tall in the night, promising to fulfil our oldest dreams of venturing to
other worlds. In today’s Mars mission update, we’re
going to be taking a look at rocket like other, SpaceX’s Starship Launch System, capable
of sending over 100 people to land on any surface in our solar system. We’ll cover the latest design of Starship, the building and testing of the first prototypes, the timeline
for future missions, and where the first Starships will land on Mars. Finally, we’ll examine
recent progress on building Martian outposts and keeping people alive beyond Earth, in
preparation for establishing a self-sufficient society on the red planet. *Martian Colonist intro music plays* On September 28th, 2019, SpaceX CEO Elon Musk
unveiled the first full-scale prototype of Starship, part of their next generation launch
system. When complete, Starship will be the most powerful rocket in the world, with a
lift-off thrust twice that of the Saturn V Apollo Moon rocket. Upon reaching space, the
lower part of the rocket, the booster, will detach from Starship, turn around, and ignite
its engines to return to the launch site. By re-landing the booster, it can be refuelled
and re-used many times dramatically lowering launch costs. After Starship enters orbit
it waits for another Starship, a tanker, to rendezvous and dock with it end-to-end, enabling
the primary Starship to refuel for its journey. Once refuelled, the Starships undock, with
the tanker returning to Earth while the primary vessel ignites its engines to go forth to
its destination: the Moon, Mars, or even beyond. This isn’t the first time we’ve heard
about Starship, in fact the basic concept was presented back in 2016. But over the years,
the design has undergone many rapid changes and iterations, which I’ve documented in
previous Mars Mission Updates. So let’s start by taking a look at the latest design. The Starship Launch System will be the world’s first fully-reusable orbital-class rocket,
making it 100-1,000x cheaper than traditional expendable rockets. It consists of two parts:
a large lower booster called Super Heavy and an upper stage spacecraft called Starship.
Both parts are made of an alloy called 301 stainless steel, which has the advantage
of being 50x cheaper per ton than advanced materials like carbon-fibre composites while
also allowing the frame to be welded and assembled quickly without the need for a dedicated factory. The Starship itself is 50m tall, 9m in diameter, and can carry a payload to orbit of up to
150t by mass or 1,100 m^3 by volume. At the front are two actuating forward fins, while at the rear are 6 pop-out landing legs, 2 wings, and 6 raptor engines – 3 sea-level
engines optimised for use in atmosphere, and 3 vacuum-optimised engines. Raptor is a full-flow staged combustion engine, capable of producing 2 MN of thrust by burning cryogenically cooled liquid CH4 and O2. The operating temperature of this fuel, around
–200 C, is another reason for choosing steel as a material, as 301 stainless steel is twice
as strong as advanced materials like aluminium alloys or carbon-fibre at cryogenic temperatures.
SpaceX are currently ramping up production of this new engine, from one every 8-10 days
at the moment to 1 every day by early next year. The base of Starship is coated with hexagonal ceramic tiles serving as a reusable heat shield. For when Starship enters a planetary atmosphere, typically at 25 times the speed of sound,
the oncoming airflow is ionised to produce a searing plasma that would destroy an unshielded
ship. Fortunately, the high melting point of steel, around 1500 C, means the side opposite
the flow can be left unshielded. This high melting point also reduces the thickness required for the ceramic heatshield tiles, largely compensating for the increased rocket weight
from using steel instead of aluminium. Once Starship survives atmospheric entry,
it descends, falling like a skydiver. The wings and fins help maintain lift, reducing
the rate of deceleration and hence the heating rate. They also help to steer the falling
Starship, with the actuating fins able to adjust the pitch, roll, and yaw of the vehicle. Finally, Starship gimbals and fires its main engines and gas thrusters to reorient itself
vertically before coming in to land. The second part of the launch system, the
Super Heavy booster, is 68m tall, 9m in diameter, and supports between 24 and 37 raptor engines
for a total thrust of up to 72 MN. Actuating grid fins made of welded steel provide steering and stability during descent, while 6 rear fins at the base serve as landing legs. With Super Heavy and Starship together and fully fuelled the total lift-off mass exceeds 4.5 million kg. In the most recent Starship presentation,
Elon Musk estimated that the total development cost of this system is between $2-3 bn, with the funding
to date largely coming from the private sector. Ultimately, even a single Starship could one day launch
to space and return 3 times a day, or 1,000x a year, capable of transporting over 300x
the mass of the International Space Station to orbit each year. And it is this paradox of launching
more material into space, more rapidly, but for a fraction of current launch costs that
will prove the game-changer in enabling the settlement of other worlds. So where are SpaceX currently at in realising this vision? In late 2018, they began constructing
a scaled-down prototype of Starship, later called Starhopper, to serve as a testing bed for Raptor engines in a flight environment. The goal of Starhopper was essentially similar
to the grasshopper test program SpaceX conducted from 2012 to 2013 in developing re-usability
for their Falcon 9 rockets, where a rocket flies to a given altitude, hovers, possibly
translates, before returning to land. This overall sequence is called a ‘hop’. Starhopper experienced its first engine static fire test in April, its first flight test with a 20m
hop in July, and finally, a successful 150m hop with sideways translation in August. While testing Starhopper, SpaceX has also been building two full-scale Starship prototypes.
The Mk 1 vehicle, which Elon showed in his recent presentation, has been built over the
past 4-5 months at SpaceX’s newest launch site near Boca Chica Village, in Texas. Simultaneously, a second team is establishing the Mk 2 Starahip in Cocoa, Florida. Both the Mk 1 and Mk 2
Starships are designed to reach altitudes of 10s of km, a notable improvement over Starhopper.
The Mk 1 Starship prototype shown in Elon’s talk weighs 200t and will support 3 Raptor
engines at the base. Though the frame is mostly complete, the interior is largely empty, so
the Mk 1 prototype has since been taken apart to prepare it for future flights. The next steps in SpaceX’s plan are to finish the Mk 2 Starship in Florida before the end
of this year and to prepare the Mk 1 Starship for a 20 km test flight as early as November or
December. Should the 20 km flight be successful, SpaceX will begin preparing for orbital flights. A Mk 3 and a Mk 4 Starship will be built by January and March of next year, respectively, each supporting 6 raptor engines. The first Super Heavy boosters will be built alongside this generation of
Starships, ready to support the first orbital flight with the Mk 4 or Mk 5 Starship as soon
as April 2020. Should the orbital test succeed, Elon Musk has stated, optimistically, that
they would consider flying people around 6 months afterwards, though they would likely
fly many times without people beforehand to prove the system’s overall safety. Now, things get
increasingly uncertain from here, so you should take these next few dates with an extra pinch
of salt. A potential uncrewed Moon landing could occur in 2021, largely prompted by the
current political environment’s focus on lunar missions. The first Mars-bound cargo missions could depart in the 2022 launch window, providing the supplies to establish a methane-oxygen
fuel production facility on Mars. In 2023, In 2023, SpaceX are due to fly their first paying astronaut, Yusaku Maezawa, and up to 8 artists around the Moon for the dearMoon project. Critically, a large portion of the funding for Starship’s development to date has come from Maezawa. Finally, SpaceX could launch the first crewed mission to Mars from either their Texas or
Florida facilities as early as the Mars launch window in September 2024. Now, that’s certainly an ambitious timeline, and you’d be well within your rights to
be quite sceptical that SpaceX can pull this off. But if you look back to 2016, when Elon
Musk offered a similar timeline, they envisioned orbital testing of Starship in early 2020,
which is only a few months off their current plans 3 years later. And given the exponential
progress we have seen over the last year on Starship construction, perhaps they won’t
be too far off. For when Starship is fully operational, the possibilities are endless.
It could help space agencies establish an international lunar outpost, mount exploration
missions to the outer solar system, and progressively, over time, establish the first settlement
on the red planet. So if we want to build a Martian outpost in
the near future, one of the most pressing issues is to chose an appropriate landing site. Ideally, you want to land as close to the equator as possible to maximise the potential
for solar power production. But you also want ready access to water ice, both for drinking, producing air, and for fuel – with ice more common closer to the poles. So to first order, good landing sites balance these factors by occurring halfway between the equator and
the Martian poles. And because the southern hemisphere of Mars tends to be higher elevation uneven
surfaces, the northern hemisphere around 45 degrees latitude north of the equator is a good starting point. SpaceX have clearly been thinking along these
lines, as between June and August this year the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter’s HiRISE
camera took 18 high-resolution photographs of 9 locations on the Martian surface. These photographs were tagged on the HiRISE website as ‘Candidate Landing Sites for SpaceX’s
Starship’, requested in April by a geologist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on behalf
of SpaceX. For each potential landing site, 2 photos were taken at different times to
enable the construction of 3D stereoscopic images of the site, along the lines of this animation
put together by the European Space Agency of a different region on Mars a few years ago. So where are the potential landing sites located?
8 of the 9 sites are found on or near Arcadia Planitia, a relatively flat region north west
of Olympus Mons. The 9th site is located in the Phlegra mountains, north east of Elysium Mons. Why these regions were chosen becomes clearer
if we switch to a map showing the probability of water ice existing in the subsurface. In
this map, put together by the SWIM project, blue indicates an increasing likelihood of
water ice, whilst red indicates remote measurements are largely inconsistent with subsurface ice deposits. We can see by eye that Arcadia Planitia appears to be the best location in the Martian northern
hemisphere below 60 degrees north to find water ice. So let’s take a closer look at Arcadia. As an aside, these ice maps combine information from multiple lines of evidence, including subsurface hydrogen detected by neutron spectroscopy, satellite thermal measurements, geological signs of ice, and also radar reflection measurements. This, overall, provides a more robust measure of the probability of water ice than any single satellite instrument
can provide. If you’re interested in how this metric is calculated, you’ll find more
details on the SWIM project website linked to in the description down below. If we now overlay the 8 landing sites SpaceX are considering in Arcadia, we see that they
are largely consistent with a high probability of ice deposits. And we aren’t talking here
about a few chunks of ice, but more like a layer of ice more than 100m thick. We also know from impact events exposing water ice that this can be accessible within just 1m
of the surface. Overall then, SpaceX’s potential landing sites are flat, warm, relatively hazard-free,
and are among the best locations on Mars to find water ice. Ok, so we’ve got a pretty good idea now of where on Mars to send people. So the next
step is to think about some of the practical considerations for supporting a human presence
there. First, how do you build a base on Mars before any people arrive; secondly, how do
you keep people alive once they are there; and thirdly, what kind of environment suits
will the Martian colonists wear when operating on the surface? These are all big questions,
each of which could have a dedicated video on their own, but I want to focus on some recent progress
towards solving these challenges today. Classical designs of Martian outposts face
a number of issues. They require pre-fabricated modules from Earth, making it difficult to
replace modules or expand the base on demand. They also have relatively little radiation
shielding, which is a big problem if you are planning to live on Mars for many decades. An elegant solution to both of these problems is 3D printing. One idea is to scout the Martian surface for
local resources with robots, collect and refine the Martian regolith, and heat it with microwaves
to produce construction materials. This can then be used as feedstock for 3D printing
a thick radiation-proof structure, within which a base can assembled out of flexible
inflatable modules. The design we just saw, from the HASSELL studio, is just one of many concepts
which have arisen from NASA’s 3D Printed-Habitat Challenge over the past 4 years. Earlier this year, NASA’s 3D printing challenge held its final competition, where two companies
built 1/3 scale models of 3D printed Mars habitats which were then subjected to a battery
of tests. Here is MARSHA, the winning design by AI SpaceFactory. The proposed habitat is
made from a material which is a blend of basaltic fibre extracted from Martian rock and bioplastic
extracted from plants grown on Mars. The basalt fibre has a similar tensile strength to carbon
fibre, while the bioplastic, made from polylactic acid, is an excellent radiation shield against
cosmic rays due to its low overall atomic weight. The vertically oriented design of MARSHA minimises
mechanical stresses and makes it easy for a single machine to print without having to move much
across the ground, while also maximising the usable space for human occupation by dividing
the volume into 4 vertical levels. Designs like this offer the potential to both solve
challenges of living on Mars while simultaneously offering a high-quality of life to the early settlers. We should probably look at how to keep people alive on Mars. If you are just going into space on a short mission,
it is usually fine to use consumables for life support rather than making your own air for
example. But for a sustained human presence beyond Earth, such as on the Moon, Mars, or
the ISS, you need a regenerative life support system. On the space station, the Environmental
Control and Life Support System, or ECLSS, relies on a complicated system of chemical
reactions to recycle the air and water, process human waste, and maintain comfortable environmental
conditions. But this system needs routine maintenance, and many spare parts, which might
be able to work on Starship for example, but wouldn’t be sustainable for a Martian base. A more viable solution for life support on Mars could be provided, not by chemistry,
but by so-called bioregenerative life support systems. Here, plants and bacteria act in a self-contained
system to recycle waste and produce breathable air, water, and food. Humans, animals, plants
and bacteria thereby co-exist in a closed environment. There has been relatively little funding for such activities
over the past few years. But recently, China has made important advances in bioregenerative life support with their ‘Lunar Palace 1’ experiment. In 2018, 4 volunteers completed 370 days of experiments living in the 500 m^3 self-contained facility, securing a world record. They managed to produce all of
their oxygen from vegetation, recycle all water internally, and produce up to 80% of
the food they consumed locally. By the time the volunteers emerged, the Lunar Palace 1
facility had reached 98% self-sufficiency. Clearly there is a lot more work to be done
before bioregenerative life support is mature enough for use in space, but these experiments
are at least demonstrating the promise of such systems for future Martian habitats.
Keeping people alive and well inside the base is all well and good, but occasionally the
Martian settlers will need to go outside. And for this they will need surface suits,
which will have to be quite different from those used at the space station today due to the different
gravity and especially the abrasive dust on the Martian surface. This month, NASA put
out a Request For Information to seek industry feedback on a new suit design for its Artemis
Moon program. These suits will offer increased mobility, thermal resilience, functionality
in different gravitational fields, and dust resistance. Notably, NASA also explicitly mentions
that the design will be flexible enough to adapt for use in the Martian atmosphere. The
first of these new suits is due to be tested on the space station in 2023, ready to be
used on NASA’s Artemis III mission, envisioned to land a crew on the Moon in 2024. This suit design could therefore provide a great foundation to build upon for human Mars missions in the years to come. So hopefully I’ve convinced you that some progress is being made on each of these challenges,
none of which appear to be show-stoppers for creating a human outpost on Mars. And while
SpaceX are focused on developing the transportation system to take us there in the coming years, it’s
encouraging to see other private companies and government agencies are actively working
on these important problems. Though full solutions may not be ready to
support a human mission to Mars by 2024, as SpaceX are targeting, I don’t think they’ll be
too far behind. In fact, I suspect that the rate limiting step will be finding and training
astronaut crews to go on the initial Mars missions. Because it’s a very different skill set you need to independently operate on Mars than what is normally covered in traditional
astronaut training processes. So you’d either have to re-train existing astronauts for many years
or conduct an astronaut selection process, which I’m not aware of SpaceX having plans
to do anytime soon. I’d be curious to hear your thoughts on this. Do you think anyone on Earth will
be qualified and ready to go to Mars by 2024? And if so, who should go? An international
team from various space agencies, or perhaps people selected and trained by a private
astronaut corps? Personally, I’d be surprised if we are ready to launch a crew to Mars
before, say, 2031, but please do drop your thoughts in the comments below
and we’ll get a bit of a discussion going on down there. So that brings us to the end of this Mars Mission Update, but since it’s been a while
since the last video I just wanted to share some updates with you as to what I’ve been getting up to. In August, I moved to the US and shortly after started working at the Carl Sagan Institute at Cornell University. I’m currently working on a variety of theoretical
projects in exoplanet atmosphere research, including interpreting some new Hubble observations
of exoplanets which are yielding some very interesting results. In our group we’re
also getting ready for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, due to launch in March
2021, with observing proposals due early next year. I’m also pleased to say that I’ll
be briefly heading back to the UK at the end of this month to graduate with my PhD in Cambridge. The next Mars Mission Update is currently planned to come out around the end of December,
where I’ll review 2019 and look ahead to next year. And given all that is due to happen
over the next few months, I’ll also probably organise a live stream, perhaps for SpaceX’s 20 km Mk 1 Starship flight. Lastly, I’ve also been thinking about ways to produce more regular content for this channel, which is a little tricky to balance between my research position
and how long it takes to put together each video. So I’m wondering if any of you would
like to be involved in future Martian Colonist videos? For example, this could be researching
interesting topics for scripts, designing infographics, moderating livestreams, producing
animations, or even if you’d just like to see what goes on behind the scenes. If you’re interested, I’m thinking of putting together a Discord channel to organise and coordinate such activities, if you look in the description, you’ll find a quick Google form so that I can gauge interest. So if you fill that in, I’ll be in touch. There’s certainly no shortage of topics to talk about around Mars colonisation, so
be sure to subscribe if you haven’t already so that you don’t miss a thing. Thanks for watching everyone, and
I’ll see you in the next Mars Mission Update. Thanks for watching everyone, please do let me know if you have any questions or comments
down below. To make sure you don’t miss future Mars Mission Updates, and upcoming
videos, hit subscribe and click the notification bell for all the latest news on our
journey to the Red Planet.

100 thoughts on “Mars Mission Update: October 2019

  1. Do you think anyone on Earth will be ready for a crewed Mars mission by 2024? If not 2024, when do you think the first person will land on Mars? And should the first crew be traditional astronauts (NASA, ESA, Roscosmos, JAXA, etc.), company employees, private individuals, or someone else entirely?

    Looking forward to reading your thoughts, as always!


    P.S. as usual, I will be reading all your comments! I'll respond to most questions as and when I have a moment.

  2. Flat earthers need not apply. We don't need some of the first people on Mars to be running around with their inane ideas that Mars too is also flat!

  3. buster returning to launch pad..what a it needs fuel to get up and fuel to land, and balance while slowing down.. this is sci fi

  4. Mars died billion of years ago, there’s nothing there and never will be colonizing Mars is a joke, cause it would take thousends of years to make an atmosfeer there, not happening you probably don’t know how you make an atmosfeer

  5. 2:31🤭I as waitin for 2 lesbian butt cheeks to slide into frame. Lol. They don’t , they didn’t though. 😐alll goood.

  6. In reality nothing has changed, chemical rockets to the moon and then what? We do nothave technology to go much of anywhere. Chemical explosions as propellant is not going to cut it!!

  7. What a stupid nonsense! They were colonized Mars with the Secret Space Program a long time ego! Elon Mask same as Nasa a money grabber for the Secret but real space-program which is using portals and star-gates to travel. (Out of the public eye).RECEARCH SECRET SPACE PROGRAM!

  8. Just strap lunar palace one to a rocket (or invent an advanced propulsion technology capable of seamless logistic resupply together with a Martian economy)

  9. I really don't see any of this happening….too many races of humanity would rather destroy themselves with WARS and GREED than to set sail for other worlds together in peace. But also, we still know very little about our own planet as well. PLUS, another factor….without a protective shield around the ship, we are open to the many hazards within the immense distances being traveled and which are very bountiful with many microbial objects which can penetrate the hull of any ship, leaving it disabled and non-functioning, besides with that in mind, even our own space-debris is a danger to the outer hull of any ship traveling and encountering that debris.
    Another big factor of all of this is the contamination of both our worlds microscopically and the one which we would visit….both would be in danger, and all life on our planet would become a disaster in the making… the process….extinction of life on our world. Whoever is planning on any of this, is NOT thinking far enough ahead about the HIGH RISK FACTORS at all, and NOT PLANNING for any of the future consequences it needs to be prepared to take and face. NO COLONISTS ….ONLY GREED to extract what resources might be there and/or the extermination of all life upon our planet EARTH.

  10. Something I've always been interested to know is: When atmospheric entry speeds are quote in "Mach", is the speed related to the speed of sound on Earth, or the speed of sound on Mars (for example)? I ask because the seed of sound on Mars is 2/3 that of Earth. And how does this translate to vehicle heating?

  11. I know this seems dumb to raise this issue, but it might contribute in “educating “ many of us who do not use the METRIC SYSTEM in our daily living.
    So my suggestion would be to speak both your sizes/distances in metric and English system . It seems logical that anyone listening to your valuable info, much is lost when the listener is attempting to convert your metric info into what we “Americans” can relate to. We don’t live in a metric environment.

  12. Musk is also associated with a tunnel boring machine company. A underground habitat would be shielded from the radiation present on the Martian surface. Coincidence?

  13. Wait a second! The heavy returns to the takeoff base?! Imagine if this goes WRONG, like it did in the beginning tests, the whole base and a 10km radius will be gone 😳
    Edit (after viewing the many video's): There can lituarly go 100ths of things very very very wrong, so I personaly have a very bad feeling about this mission.
    Otherhand, as a big Elon fan, I wish all the best, can't wait till the day is there and pray intensly to be F*CKING alive in this century!! 🙏🏻🥳

  14. I really like this presentation. The Narrator has a wonderful accent, but it’s all very distracted by the blank wall behind him. I would recommend anything beside a blank wall. It doesn’t have to be space or anything related, but something to break up the blankness behind his bald head. No offense on the bald head either.

  15. This is the best overview of Mars missions I've seen. I'd like to see you do a special on proplusion. I just don't see anyone making it there with humans with chemical rockets. Do you think the first human mission will use NTP?

  16. a colossal waste of resources. We already know the basics of this solar system. Robots can sift through rocks and ice and search out microbes. Why not look out to the stars where we might find something interesting? – yes, of course, I advocate most glorious community effort of the workers of the world rather than grandiose private enterprise of egocentric, self aggrandizing individuals

  17. Concerning your question at 22m22s: In my opinion, it will be the best thing to choose ppl worldwide, who are very skilled at their specific line of work and give them an astronaut training.
    This can be quickly realised and you will have a complete crew which is good in very branch.
    (Let's hope they stay all alive or there will be a lot of problems)

  18. How is L.A. traffic now that they have Elon's "magic" tunnel system installed. And I hear Australia is concerned that they let a wolf in who can't be satisfied with enough money when they thought they were opening the door to a battery tech salesman. My advice to you morons is to not book passage on any rockets that Elon isn't flying on himself. The guy is awfully smart. Too bad he's a fucking con man. You need to convince him to turn his genious loose on the climate crisis or we won't be in existence long enough to do anything else.


  20. We have been studying downed off world ET crafts since 1947. The problem is it's the same difference as if a small ant on the ground were studying one of ours. We will never reach past Mars with rocket technology. Anyone that does not believe any part of this statement is delusional.

  21. The main issue with humans leaving low earth orbit is not having radiation protection thru or after the van allen belt. Even though the Moon is on the other side of the van allen belt it still flies within the tale drag of earths magnetosphere which partially protects the moon within earths protection. Going anywhere further where there is no radiation protection extremely strong radiation could pose death health risks.

  22. Nobody has ever left Leo. Nobody has ever landed on the moon. Wasn't possible then and still isn't possible today. These mars missions are a farce. Just like there is no tesla in space. Dude wake up.

    Look at the lem in space.0:36 you can clearly see that is a model. Heck tons of shuttle footage launching sats were fake.

    Do you know how much space seti has scanned. 0.00000001%. Nothing and that started in the 60's just like the cold war fake space race.

  23. i have a serious question i can't seem to find the answer anywhere i look for it maybe you could make a video or comment and explain it to me, the starship looks to me to be… warped, rippled. not smooth like in cgi or animated videos of it. i can't help but think it seems a bit unsafe, it seems weak or warped from welding; i can't seem to understand, maybe once filled with fuel it will take a smoother shape? if you could get back to me id appreciate it.

    can i get likes so this gets seen please?

  24. Nicely done on this video mate. I believe Elan will make it on time. Genius plus billions of dollars equals high probability of success.

  25. Ryan do you think the James Web will have the same result as Hubble did in the same context? Since it will be able to see so much more and so much better etc. Thanks.

  26. Well let's just hope it don't go like his car did and get stuck and Earth's atmosphere and never make it to Mars. I call BS on all of this. Can you imagine 200 tons that's with it empty no cargo no crew in it

  27. Who should go should be based strictly on the highest skill set and ability to work as a team. Do not politicize who goes (nationality, race, sex, religion, sexual preference) you know all the ignorant ways we currently make decisions.

  28. Does anyone else think that the human disease needs spreading further a field..

    Or perhaps we need to tidy our room here before going else where with regards to the Mars mission.

    It will fail if attempted.

    The human race is not mentally stable enough.

    It's just a pathetic vermin looking on in wonder at the achievements and ideas of inbred entitled scumbags.

    And that's pathetic to the core.

    You can't even be yourselfs or cope with those around you being themselves..

  29. Best solution is CO2 artificial decomposition on pure Carbon to build Carbon fibre products and Oxygen for life support environment!

  30. BS on the dangerous climate change, nuclear power and electric vehicles will make a radical difference in 10-20 years. NG has cut US CO2 emissions 20%.

  31. This is just regurgitated 70s nonsense with 3D printers added. What's been stopping us from going to mars has never been rocket technology. It's radiation and the enervating effects of outer space on the human body. The fact is there won't be humans on mars until progress has been made to prevent them from A) dying of cancer or going blind either during their trip to mars or after returning and B) preventing the human body from turning into jelly after years in microgravity. The few cursory mentions of radiation in this video meant to mollify the skeptics don't indicate any real progress on the issue. No doubt that in the years ahead, musk, nasa and others will keep moving the goal posts on manned mars missions until robot technology advances to the point that they can say "mars is too dangerous for humans" and send human-like robots with advanced AI instead. At that point the current generation will finally realize they've been had.

  32. The gravest problem was not addressed – gravity! Without a solution, both on mars (for any extended stay) and most profoundly – in transit, no sane mars mission is possible.

  33. I think at first it will be highly trained professionals who will go to Mars, perhaps people who already have experience in space (but there aren't many of those). If i recall correctly Elon Musk himself stated that in later stages, regular people who applied and were trained can go to Mars and live there. I think, to get in as a regular person will be close to impossible at the beginning and the requirements will be extremely strict. I think even when 'regular people' can go it will still be strict and highly educated people are preffered. Personally i would consider to go in the future but we'll see by then, i might not be fit for the job! It could be that there are strict physical and psychological requirements and preperations needed, considering it's even hard for people to consistently work out or follow a diet i think the amount of people that are suited for the job is already drastically reduced.

  34. You are awesome only things please do not appear on the video unless you change your appearance dramatically because you look scary your voice is absolutely amazing so stick with a voice only on the video

  35. Would you care to explain to me and many many others why. Why spend all those efforts to go to a another planet. why not spent all those efforts in our planet to make it better and save it for our future generations. why not save earth then think about going somewhere else???? why

  36. Maybe in 30 years we can get man past 300 miles.In 50 , the moon, (maybe) and finally. atleast 100 years from now. we can safely send humans to mars.

  37. Hmmmm if only resources of a specie are forwarded to conquer space, our plan B for our specie of humanity is secure.

  38. Dear Martian Colonist,
    Will you please discuss the pros & cons of adding mass & gravity & warmth to Mars by directing astroids & comets to crash on Mars' surface? The more like earth Mars can be made the more likely earthlings could survive there long term.

  39. I think mars will be more of a challenge then living in the marianas trench. if we ever get to the point of a colony on will be very dependent on ships from earth for supplies,i seriously don't think we can ever maintain a society on mars without intervention from earth

  40. Only half is shielded? Come in Space x, we just lost a an aluminum flap and turning belly up…. 15 sec later…. Booom. Best of luck.

  41. Astronaut training for a moon and/or Mars mission ASAP. I should be a private endeavor in order to avoid undue government influence. There are plenty of retired engineers and astronauts available to lend a hand. The first manned mission must have a high complement of astronauts. Yet, botonists,, biologists, physicists, physicians, and sports trainers should be included. Sending unmanned missions beforehand will be necessary to prepare the surface and sub-surface for human habitation, and convert water ice and other elements into fuel, oxygen, and drinking water. Landing pads can be prepared well in advance, as well as roadways, etc. The Space Station has already proven that we can survive in a weightless environment, and Mars will be even better.

  42. NASA is sooo slow. Why wait until 2023 to finally try out the new versions of space suits? It would be refreshing to finally see them do something faster, and still good. I’d be ecstatic if by the time Space X was ready to try out a manned mission, NASA could be like,”here is a ready to go space suit. LETS DO THIS!!”

  43. Why not build underground, you could start off using Lava tubes and go on from there. It would be safe from Radiation and you could use solar panels on the surface , just an idea .

  44. More fairy tale crap,that the taxpayer will have to foot the bill for.You should first try to get out of LOW Earth obit,which they haven't done yet so why talk about Mars?

  45. It ain't gonna happen. By the time the astronauts get there, their bones will have deteriorated to nothing and their optic nerves will have swollen to debilitating proportions. Robots only or forget it..

  46. This is the first video I have watched. Very well scripted and delivered. Ryan, you should be replacing David Attenborough for documentaries!

  47. Also need discussion on long-term electrical power generation. Small thorium reactors? How long do current solar panels last? And how do they get get replaced. Also percentage of cut-and-cover underground habitats to deal with radiation.

  48. All those times mentioned in the video, multiply them by 10. I guarantee, there will be no human on Mars in this decade or next. 2030 at the earliest. The Moon only a couple years earlier. My gut tells me Musk will be lucky if he can send someone to the Moon by 2030.

  49. Re: 2031.. Long term projections are often pessimistic. Short term projections are often optimistic. In the mid 1950's a panel of scientists with high credentials testified to Congress that faster than sound flight would never be practical and that the jet airliner would never replace propeller airliners. Is 2031 long or short term?

  50. Very informative, but one thing that not many experts talk about is the existing of microbial life on Mars and other planets in our solar system, the recent discoveries in the deepest parts of the oceans has shown that life can flourish in the most inhospitable parts of earth , in permafrost and in hot vents at the deepest parts of seas and oceans the latest discoveries has made biologists rewrite some of the older theories that ponders upon the question of the origin of life on earth, in that the current belief on the origin of life on earth is said to be originated near the hot vents at the bottom of oceans so we can’t at all rule out the existence of some sort of life form in Mars or other planets and moons , so the first thing they should seriously consider is not contaminating the heavenly bodies with our presence, we had no idea about the existence of life in the most deepest parts of earth’s oceans where the hot vents are constantly throwing out all sorts of hot and toxic materials and yet all sorts of creatures are very adapted to live in that environment
    Our current technology will not allow us to survey the inner parts of Mars so all we can do is only to scratch the surface of Mars and as we know it now the different layers of soil of any planet can reveal many hidden secrets
    So it’s a bit odd that people like Elon Musk never talk about the very important matter that is the respect and preservation of the microbial life forms on Mars , every time Elon Musk speaks about his plans for human habitation on Mars he seems to have no preparation for the life that is already there and the terrible consequences of germs of earth meeting germs of Mars !
    I can’t understand why such an important aspect of space exploration isn’t being addressed at all by people like him.

  51. Wings aren’t an appropriate term for the aero breaking fins. On the way up they are fins and not wings while on he way down they’re are drag production devices flying nearly perpendicular to the fin surface.

  52. About time they stopped all of this crap about space, we have never been to the moon or any other place outside of Earth, and never will.

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